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The Hunchback of Notre Dame. The Portable Emerson - eBook. Related Products. Booker T. Ethan Frome Edith Wharton. Edith Wharton. More Info Add To Wishlist. Jane Eyre - eBook Charlotte Bronte. They wait. Notice how at first these four men, all mechanics who hate the war, don't want to talk in front of Henry. Even though he's only an American ambulance driver, he's a tenente, an officer, and still represents authority. A little later they loosen up and start to talk, first about the attack and later about the war in general.

The conversation is revealing. They pass judgment on various units in the Italian army as well as on the state of morale, which seems low. NOTE: Bersaglieri are shock troops, an elite group.

Literature Notes A Farewell To Arms Cliffsnotes

Granatieri grenadiers, grenade-throwers are apparently less spirited. The Alpini are Italian mountain troops, and you already know that the carabinieri are hated MPs. Note that Passini spits at the mention of them. Evviva l'esercito means "long live the army. The long Chapter 9 is climaxed by Henry's wounding and his removal first to a dressing station and then to a field hospital behind the lines. The subjective impressions of the wounding are autobiographical: Henry, like Hemingway, is wounded by a large Austrian mortar shell, and a man near him has his legs blown off.

The passage describing the wounding is a keenly effective piece of stream of consciousness and one written with absolute sincerity and candor, coming out of the impressions still vivid in Hemingway's mind ten years after he had been wounded. The chapter closes with a grisly incident. The wounded man in the stretcher above Henry hemorrhages; blood pours down on Henry. After a time the stream lessens and then drips slowly, like "from an icicle after the sun has gone. Perhaps this is the horror behind Frederic Henry's earlier, emotionless statement, "Things went badly.

The atmosphere is peaceful, subdued. Rinaldi visits. As usual the Italian is outgoing, the American subdued. A lot of discussion involves a possible decoration for Henry--Rinaldi hopes to magnify Henry's deeds to earn him a higher medal, but Henry downplays them. Catherine's name comes up, casually, but Henry seems more interested in hearing about the girls in the Villa Rossa. Rinaldi says the brothel should change them, they're like old friends, not girls.


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Is he revealing that he studiously avoids any permanent human attachment? Yet he seems to have missed Henry as a "blood brother and roommate. Getting ready to leave, Rinaldi starts in on Catherine, scornfully calling her an "English goddess. It gets to him. Again as in Chapter 5 they come close to a real argument over Rinaldi's cool attitude toward women in general--Catherine included--and Henry's still confused state of mind about Catherine in particular. He may not love her, but he certainly gets touchy when Rinaldi criticizes her. His visit is a contrast to Rinaldi's.

It's sundown, cooler. Henry says that lying in bed at dusk makes him feel like a small boy. The talk turns to the ever-present war and is loaded with meaning. Henry suggests that the priest is suffering from the "war disgust"--perhaps the hollow feeling that sent Henry to the city instead of to Abruzzi, a disgust and uncaring that begin with the fighting but extend to all of life. The priest says that is not the case; he hates only the war. The priest spells things out neatly. The men in the Italian army don't want to fight; the officers and the "people who would make war" force them to.

Henry, although not a real officer, is, according to the priest, closer to them than to the men. Even wounded, Henry doesn't see the war for what it is. He's probably right. At this stage, frightened as he might have been at getting blown up, Henry is still learning. He may deprecate his forthcoming medals, but it's a good bet that he'll wear them. The priest speculates about what he'll do after the war.

At the mention of the Abruzzi--that region of rural serenity--the priest brightens, and the talk turns to love. At first it's love of God, but as the priest moves to go, Henry asks a pointed question, "How about loving women? If I really loved some woman The priest talks of pure love; Rinaldi complains about the same old prostitutes. The priest assures Henry that he will fall in love and be happy; Rinaldi disparagingly says there is no real difference between a good girl like Catherine and one of his whores.

The priest and Henry part with warmth; Rinaldi leaves on the verge of a fight. The chapter ends with a detailed description of the Abruzzi. It should be obvious now that this place is to be thought of as a kind of paradise, in contrast to the hell of the war-torn country. Note how off-handedly he describes soldiers dying, the new graves in the garden, and the orderly whose job is to paint names on crosses.

Understatement again. The night before Henry is transferred to the American hospital in Milan, Rinaldi appears with a major from Henry's mess. The three get very drunk. Hemingway's lurching prose shows how even important facts of war are losing their meaning.

It doesn't seem to matter who the United States declares war on. Countries are interchangeable. Japan is like France. The trio's plans for Henry in Milan involve nothing military, but center on La Scala, the city's famed opera house.

How It All Goes Down

Then Rinaldi says he has a surprise for Henry: Catherine will be working at the American hospital, too. We can almost see Rinaldi's smirk: "You go to live in a big city and have your English there to cuddle you. You've met the major characters and learned the setting and some of the themes--at least the beginnings of their presentations. Henry's problems are stated: his gropings toward the meaning of war, his blundering in the direction of love. Of course, you don't know any outcomes yet. They must wait. Book I has completed only the introduction; Book II will present the complication.

He's met by an elderly woman, a Mrs. Walker, who's flustered at his arrival. Henry arranges tips for the porters who helped him and sets himself up in a room, despite Mrs. Walker's inefficiency. He sleeps, and when he awakes he's greeted by a nurse who's remarkably efficient; she washes him, takes his temperature, and makes his bed with him in it. The contrast is to be noted.

A Farewell To Arms - The Garbage Analysis

Again you have the admired character, Miss Gage, who does things well, in contrast to the pitied, even scorned character, who doesn't. Miss Gage is right up there with the British ambulance driver in Book I.