Geber or Jabir ibn Alfah al-Ishbili fl. III, He produced commentaries on the Bible and the Talmud, as well as works in mathematics, philosophy and astronomy. The complete Milhamot has not been published; a modern, abridged edition has been prepared by B. Regiomontanus owned a copy of a Gerson text on astronomical instruments, according to the and inventories of his library.
Hipparchus d. Ptolemy apparently adopted his solar theory from Hipparchus and attributes to him the discovery of precession, the slow motion of the equinox points through the fixed stars from east to west. Hipparchus also wrote works on geography and the sizes and distances of the Sun and Moon and on eclipses. Schmeidler, ed. Jacobus Cremonensis fl.
Augustine, translated several important Greek texts into Latin, including the works of Archimedes which became the standard version. Jacopo Antonio Marcello d. At the death of his son in , Jacopo arranged for a series of consolatory letters and elegies to be composed by leading literati, including George of Trebizond. Around the same time, George dedicated to Jacopo his translation and commentary on the Almagest and his Comparatio philosophorum Aristotelis et Platonis , three of the most controversial works George produced. Monfasani, ; King, Joannes de Sacrobosco or John of Holywood d.
Augustine at the monastry of Holywood in Nithsdale before becoming a professor of mathematics at the university of Paris. He wrote elementary textbooks on spherical astronomy and mathematics that, into the seventeenth century, would be widely used and commented on in the curriculum of European universities.
Joannes de Campo S.
Petri or Giovanni da Camposampiero fl. Shank Joannes Hispalensis or John of Seville fl. Historians, however, have identified several different translators working under this or similar names in twelfth-century Spain. See Thorndike and Burnett Jordanus de Nemore fl. His Elementa Jordani super demonstrationem ponderum introduced into statics the ideas of component forces, positional gravity and the infinitesimal. His work on algebra, De numeris datis , applied analysis to algebraic problems.
Consisting of more than propositions, his Arithmetica was widely discussed in the Middle Ages. His Demonstratio Jordani de algorismo showed a deep knowledge of the Arabic number system and arithmetic operations. And his Liber Philotegni de triangulis is one of the most sophisticated geometries written in Latin medieval Europe.
Leucippus fl. Leucippus is also thought to have authored a cosmography, according to which the stars and Earth arose from a swirl of colliding bodies separated from the infinite. Martianus Capella : Perhaps a teacher of rhetoric, Martianus is known for his textbook, De nuptiis philologiae et Mercurii , which introduced the seven liberal arts to students of the trivium and quadrivium throughout the early Middle Ages.
Eastwood, Matthias Corvinus : King of Hungary, King of Bohemia and Duke of Austria, Matthias used diplomacy and mercenary troops to extend the borders of Hungary to their great extent ever and to become the most powerful ruler of central Europe in the fifteenth century. In , he founded a new university in Pressburg and established a massive personal library of secular books, including many scientific works, that in size was second only to the Vatican Library in all of Europe. Presumably Regiomontanus completed this latter work after , during his time in Hungary; the two men may well have met.
Menelaus of Alexandria fl. According to inventories from and , Regiomontanus owned a treatise by Menelaus on the sphere, the editio princeps of which appeared in DSB. Nicholas V, Pope : Before being elected pope in , Nicholas had studied theology at Bologna and had traveled through Germany, France and England, collecting books. As a youth, he had tutored members of the Strozzi and Albizzi families in Florence, where he had met many humanist writers.
As pope, Nicholas enlarged the Vatican Library and patronized artists, humanists and translators of Greek texts such as George of Trebizond. Plato BCE : Founder of the Academy in Athens, Plato emphasized the mathematical sciences and their value in the training of philosophers. His philosophy of Forms, eternal, unchanging abstractions which the human mind at times can comprehend, would influence Western epistemology for nearly two millenia. His account of the physical world and its origin, presented in the Timaeus , helped make ideas of the divine craftsman, a spherical cosmos, and geometrical atoms central to Western cosmology.
Pliny the Elder : Pliny pioneered the development of an encyclopedic approach to nature.
His hugely influential work on Natural History does not offer philosophical theories or explanations but rather breaks nature down into discrete, decontextualized entities--plants, animals, minerals, medicines, stars and planets—presented as lists of facts. He portrayed his account as comprehensive, stating in its preface that he would describe twenty thousand i.
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DSB; Eastwood, Proclus : Having studied and taught at the Academy in Athens, Proclus became a leading late Neoplatonist philosopher. Zinner , Regiomontani Nuremberg, The German geographer Martin Behem made these calendars known among the Spanish and Portuguese navigators, and they became of the greatest importance in guiding Columbus, Diaz, Vasco da Gama, and many others over the trackless ocean. See also Regiomontanus on Wikipedia , and the disclaimer. Hidden category: Subpages.
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Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read Edit View history. Display Options. He also invented the Turing machine , a mathematical model of a general purpose computer, and the Turing test , which can be used to judge the ability of artificial intelligence. Turing was gay, which was still a crime during his life, and meant that his groundbreaking accomplishments were never fully recognised. He committed suicide at the age of At the age of 25, just after finishing his doctorate in Vienna, he published his two incompleteness theorems.
These state that any consistent and sufficiently powerful mathematical system contains certain statements that are true but cannot be proven. In other words, mathematics contains certain problems that are impossible to solve. This result had a profound impact on the development and philosophy of mathematics. John von Neumann — was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist and computer scientist. He made important contributions to pure mathematics, was a pioneer of quantum mechanics, and developed concepts like game theory, cellular automata, self-replicating machines, and linear programming.
Maurits Cornelis Escher — was a Dutch artist who created sketches, woodcuts and lithographs of mathematically inspired objects and shapes: including polyhedra, tessellations and impossible shapes. He graphically explored concepts like symmetry, infinity, perspective and non-euclidean geometry. He worked on cryptography, including codebreaking for national defence during World War II, but he was also interested in juggling, unicycling and chess.
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Srinivasa Ramanujan — grew up in India, where he received very little formal education in mathematics. Yet, he managed to develop new ideas in complete isolation, while working as a clerk in a small shop. After a few failed attempts to contact other mathematicians, he wrote a letter to the famous G. Hardy immediately recognised Ramanujan's genius, and arranged for him to travel to Cambridge in England. Together, they made numerous discoveries in number theory, analysis, and infinite series.
Unfortunately, Ramanujan soon fell ill and was forced to return to India, where he died at the age of During his short life, Ramanujan proved over theorems and equations, on a wide range of topics. His work created entirely new areas of maths, and his notebooks were studied by other mathematicians for many decades after his death. Amalie Emmy Noether — was a German mathematician who made important discoveries in abstract algebra and theoretical physics, including the connection between symmetry and conservation laws. She is often described as the most influential female mathematician.